Linux Enterprise Professional LPIC-3 304: Virtualization & High Availability

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Linux Enterprise Professional LPIC-3 304: Virtualization & High Availability

Topic 330: Virtualization
330.1 Virtualization Concepts and Theory

• Terminology
• Pros and Cons of Virtualization
• Variations of Virtual Machine Monitors
• Migration of Physical to Virtual Machines
• Migration of Virtual Machines between Host systems
• Cloud Computing

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

• Hypervisor
• Hardware Virtual Machine (HVM)
• Paravirtualization (PV)
• Container Virtualization
• Emulation and Simulation
• CPU flags
• /proc/cpuinfo
• Migration (P2V, V2V)
• IaaS, PaaS, SaaS

330.2 Xen

• Xen architecture, networking and storage
• Xen configuration
• Xen utilities
• Troubleshooting Xen installations
• Basic knowledge of XAPI
• Awareness of XenStore
• Awareness of Xen Boot Parameters
• Awareness of the xm utility

Terms and Utilities:

• Domain0 (Dom0), DomainU (DomU)
• PV-DomU, HVM-DomU
• /etc/xen/
• xl
• xl.cfg
• xl.conf
• xe
• xentop

330.3 KVM

• KVM architecture, networking and storage
• KVM configuration
• KVM utilities
• Troubleshooting KVM installations

Terms and Utilities:

• Kernel modules: kvm, kvm-intel and kvm-amd
• /etc/kvm/
• /dev/kvm
• kvm
• KVM monitor
• qemu
• qemu-img

330.4 Other Virtualization Solutions

• Basic knowledge of OpenVZ and LXC
• Awareness of other virtualization technologies
• Basic knowledge of virtualization provisioning tools

Terms and Utilities:

• OpenVZ
• VirtualBox
• LXC
• docker
• packer
• vagrant

330.5 Libvirt and Related Tools

• libvirt architecture, networking and storage
• Basic technical knowledge of libvirt and virsh
• Awareness of oVirt

Terms and Utilities:

• libvirtd
• /etc/libvirt/
• virsh
• oVirt

330.6 Cloud Management Tools

• Basic feature knowledge of OpenStack and CloudStack
• Awareness of Eucalyptus and OpenNebula
Terms and Utilities:

• OpenStack
• CloudStack
• Eucalyptus
• OpenNebula

Topic 334: High Availability Cluster Management
334.1 High Availability Concepts and Theory

• Understand the most important cluster architectures
• Understand recovery and cluster reorganization mechanisms
• Design an appropriate cluster architecture for a given purpose
• Application aspects of high availability
• Operational considerations of high availability

Terms and Utilities:

• Active/Passive Cluster, Active/Active Cluster
• Failover Cluster, Load Balanced Cluster
• Shared-Nothing Cluster, Shared-Disk Cluster
• Cluster resources
• Cluster services
• Quorum
• Fencing
• Split brain
• Redundancy
• Mean Time Before Failure (MTBF)
• Mean Time To Repair (MTTR)
• Service Level Agreement (SLA)
• Disaster Recovery
• Replication
• Session handling

334.2 Load Balanced Clusters

• Understanding of LVS / IPVS
• Basic knowledge of VRRP
• Configuration of keepalived
• Configuration of ldirectord
• Backend server network configuration
• Understanding of HAProxy
• Configuration of HAProxy

Terms and Utilities:

• ipvsadm
• syncd
• LVS Forwarding (NAT, Direct Routing, Tunneling, Local Node)
• connection scheduling algorithms
• keepalived configuration file
• ldirectord configuration file
• genhash
• HAProxy configuration file
• load balancing algorithms
• ACLs

334.3 Failover Clusters

• Pacemaker architecture and components (CIB, CRMd, PEngine, LRMd, DC, STONITHd)
• Pacemaker cluster configuration
• Resource classes (OCF, LSB, Systemd, Upstart, Service, STONITH, Nagios)
• Resource rules and constraints (location, order, colocation)
• Advanced resource features (templates, groups, clone resources, multi-state resources)
• Pacemaker management using pcs
• Pacemaker management using crmsh
• Configuration and Management of corosync in conjunction with Pacemaker
• Awareness of other cluster engines (OpenAIS, Heartbeat, CMAN)

Terms and Utilities:

• pcs
• crm
• crm_mon
• crm_verify
• crm_simulate
• crm_shadow
• crm_resource
• crm_attribute
• crm_node
• crm_standby
• cibadmin
• corosync.conf
• authkey
• corosync-cfgtool
• corosync-cmapctl
• corosync-quorumtool
• stonith_admin

334.4 High Availability in Enterprise Linux Distributions

• Basic knowledge of Red Hat Enterprise Linux High Availability Add-On
• Basic knowledge of SUSE Linux Enterprise High Availability Extension

Terms and Utilities:

• Distribution specific configuration tools
• Integration of cluster engines, load balancers, storage technology, cluster filesystems, etc.

Topic 335: High Availability Cluster Storage
335.1 DRBD / cLVM

• Understanding of DRBD resources, states and replication modes
• Configuration of DRBD resources, networking, disks and devices
• Configuration of DRBD automatic recovery and error handling
• Management of DRBD using drbdadm
• Basic knowledge of drbdsetup and drbdmeta
• Integration of DRBD with Pacemaker
• cLVM
• Integration of cLVM with Pacemaker

Terms and Utilities:

• Protocol A, B and C
• Primary, Secondary
• Three-way replication
• drbd kernel module
• drbdadm
• drbdsetup
• drbdmeta
• /etc/drbd.conf
• /proc/drbd
• LVM2
• clvmd
• vgchange, vgs

335.2 Clustered File Systems

• Understand the principles of cluster file systems
• Create, maintain and troubleshoot GFS2 file systems in a cluster
• Create, maintain and troubleshoot OCFS2 file systems in a cluster
• Integration of GFS2 and OCFS2 with Pacemaker
• Awareness of the O2CB cluster stack
• Awareness of other commonly used clustered file systems

Terms and Utilities:

• Distributed Lock Manager (DLM)
• mkfs.gfs2
• mount.gfs2
• fsck.gfs2
• gfs2_grow
• gfs2_edit
• gfs2_jadd
• mkfs.ocfs2
• mount.ocfs2
• fsck.ocfs2
• tunefs.ocfs2
• mounted.ocfs2
• o2info
• o2image
• CephFS
• GlusterFS
• AFS

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